Perfect Tenses: Summary and Quiz

Written by Leny Ortega

In the previous posts, I have summarized the simple tenses. In this post, we summarize the perfect tenses. Review exercises are provided below to assess your mastery of the lesson.

Perfect tenses have three types: Present perfect, Past perfect and future perfect.

The present perfect tense denotes actions that began in the past and continues up to the present time. It is also used to suggest events that happened at unspecific time before now. Has (singular) and have (plural) + past participle of the given verb are used to form the present perfect tense.

The past perfect tense of the verb is formed with Had (for singular and plural noun)+ past participle of the verb. This tense of the verb is used to express an action that happened before another past action occurred. Always remember that the second past action must use the simple past tense of the verb.

Similarly, for the future perfect tense two actions/events are required here. But, these actions are intended to be completed in the future. Expressions such as by tomorrow, by next year, ten years from now, etc. are commonly used plus the future perfect tense (will have + past participle). This is to suggest that the action is completed before a certain time.

Practice Quiz

Choose the correct form of the perfect tense for each of the following sentences.

1.) Ebola virus (has, have) spread in countries like Africa.

2.) The reinforcement team (arrived, had arrived) after the forty-four Special Action force members (has died, had died) in the encounter.

3.) The country (will have experienced, will experience) drought before the summer comes next year.

5.) The government of China (expressed, has expressed) its desire to end the territorial row with the Philippines.

6) Melinda (will have become, had become) a lawyer before her mother retires.
World Health Organization (WHO) (warned, had warned) the public about the MERS-COV before it became widespread.

7.) The government (ordered, has ordered) recall of a certain brand of apples in the market because of its toxic contamination.

8.) Food and Drug Administration (has advised, have advised) the public against the proliferation of untested diet pills in the market.

9.) The US government (has tested, had tested) all its local produce before it reached the market.

10.) Two years from now, Melinda (will have been, will become) a licensed physical therapist.

Answer key

  1. Has
  2. Arrived, had died
  3. Will have experienced
  4. Has experienced
  5. Will have become
  6. Had warned
  7. Has ordered
  8. Has advised
  9. Had tested
  10. Will have been

Simple Tenses: Summary and Quiz

Written by Leny Ortega
Previously, we have discussed simple and compound tenses. To recapitulate, simple tenses consist of present tense, past tense and future tense. The simple present tense is formed using the base form of the verb such as talk, walk, etc. (for plural noun or pronoun) or the s-form of the verb (talks, walks, etc) for singular noun or pronoun. Other forms of the verbs like the “be” verb such as is/ are; auxiliary verbs like has / have, do / does can be used. These forms of the verb are used to express actions that are habitually done, to state a fact or general truth.
The past tense is formed with the following verbs like was (singular) / were (plural), had and did (both for singular and plural). For regular verbs you just add –ed (talked, walked, etc) or a change in spelling is needed for irregular verbs (eat = ate, write =wrote, etc). This tense of the verb is used for actions that happened or completed in a definite past time. Time expressions like yesterday, last month, few days ago, etc. are used.
For actions that are intended to be completed or done in a particular time in the future, Future tense of the verb is used. Here, expressions like tomorrow, next year, next summer, etc. will signify futurity. Though, will /shall + base form of the verb can be used most of the time will + base form of the verb is preferred by most people both in oral / written communication.
To evaluate mastery of these simple tenses, exercises below are designed for this purpose.
Choose the appropriate verb in the following sentences. Check your answers below.
  1. Citizens in a democratic country (has, have) to select a leader through election process.
  2. Pump prices (go, goes) up rapidly depending on the scarcity of supply.
  3. Terrorists groups (behead, beheaded) foreign journalists last year.
  4. Transport group (express, expresses) fare hike if oil prices (will continue, continues) to rise next week.
  5. Overseas workers (is expected, are expected) to increase in the coming years.
  6. Today’s youth (know, knows) the difference between real friendships from mere acquaintances.
  7. Typhoon Hayan (was, were) the most destructive typhoon last year.
  8. Merchandises from China (will continue, continue) to flock the global market.
  9. Persona non-grata (is, are) declared whenever a person / an individual utters or behaves inappropriately in a particular place or country.
  10. Global warming (become, becomes) an alarming problem worldwide.
Answer Key
  1. Have
  2. Go
  3. Beheaded
  4. Expresses
  5. Are expected
  6. Knows
  7. Was
  8. Will continue
  9. Is
  10. Becomes

Grammar Rules: Future Tense

Written by Leny Ortega

After discussing present tense and past tense, we now continue this series on how to form the future tense of the verb.

Future tense of the verb is used to express an action intended to be done in the future time. Therefore, actions are not yet done nor completed. Time expressions such as next year, on Monday, tomorrow, etc are used.

  • Shall / Will  + verb in the base form is the format used.

e.g. will / shall retire, will /shall eat, will /shall quit, will / shall deliver, etc.

  • Sometimes the is / are + going to form of the verb is used to denote actions in the future. Example: The cabinet officials are going to meet the President tomorrow at luncheon meeting.


  1. Mother will retire at sixty-five next year.
  2. Father promised that he will quit smoking when he returns home next month.
  3. The Pope will leave the country on Monday afternoon.
  4. Classes will resume on Tuesday.
  5. They will go to the United States next summer vacation.


Choose the correct form of the future tense inside the parentheses.

  1. The students (will submit, will submitted) the projects on Tuesday.
  2. Panfilo Lacson (are going to resigned, is going to resign) as Rehabilitation Czar next month.
  3. Papal Visit next week (will became, will become) a memorable experience to most Catholics.
  4. The K12 curriculum (will implement, will be implemented) next school year nationwide.
  5. They both agree that they (will go, will be gone) on living separate lives starting tomorrow.


  1. Answer to number 1 is will submit . Will or shall is followed by the base form of the verb. Meaning, verb should not be in the past tense.
  2. The first choices in number 2 are wrong. Simply because the subject, Panfilo Lacson is singular so we cannot use the verb are instead, it should be is. Another thing is the going to form followed by the past tense of the verb resigned. This is wrong because as a rule for infinitive to is followed by the verb in the base form. Thus, it should be to resign. Therefore, the correct answer to this number is, is going to resign.
  3. Number 3 answer is will become not will became. Obviously, the latter option makes use of the verb in the past tense after the auxiliary verb will. This is wrong because will / shall is strictly followed by verb in the base form.
  4. The choices in number 4 are both in the future tense. However, they differ in the voice of the verb. The first one will implement is in the simple future tense while the other option, will be implemented is in the future tense, but in the passive voice. Since the K12 curriculum is not the doer of the action or the implementer, (it is the DepEd), will implement is not the correct answer. The better answer is will be implemented.
  5. The same explanation in number 4 will apply to this number. The second option, will be gone is wrong because we have a doer of the action here which is the pronoun They. The correct answer here is, will go.

March 2015 COMEX Schedule now available

The 2015 Civil Service Computer Examination (COMEX) schedule for PROFESSIONAL  takers is now available online. Below is the schedule of the exam and the reservation.

Notes: There are only very limited slots for the examinations, so register as early as possible on the said dates. You may sign up now, but you can only RESERVE a slot during the date and time of online registration stated above.

Date & Time of Online Reservation            Date of Examination
Feb. 25, 2015 8 a.m.                                        March 3, 2015
March 4, 2015 8 a.m.                                        March 10, 2015
March 18, 2015 8 a.m.                                      March 24, 2015


Date & Time of Online Reservation           Date of Examination
Feb. 27, 2015 8 a.m.                                      March 5, 2015
March 6, 2015 8 a.m.                                     March 12, 2015
March 20, 2015 8 a.m.                                   March 26, 2015

Note: According to the website of CSC, the schedule maybe changed without prior notice.

The link for online registration is here.

The Comex Examination Fee is Php680.00.

For more information, please visit announcement about the 2015 COMEX schedule.

How to Convert Percent to Decimals

In the previous post, we have learned how to convert decimals to percent. In this post, we learn the opposite of this procedure. We learn how to convert percent to decimals.

If you can remember from the previous post, we convert decimals to percent by multiplying the decimal by 100. So, in this case, we divide percent by 100 in order to get the decimal value. Remember: division is the inverse operation of multiplication.

Example 1

Convert 85% to decimals.


We divide 85% by 100 which means that we will move two decimal places to the let. Note that the decimal point is on the immediate right of the ones place (in this case 5). So, if we move the decimal point two places to the left, we have .85 or 0.85. Note that we usually add one 0 to the left of the decimal point if there is no whole number.

Answer: 0.85

Example 2

What is 40% in decimal?


Again, it is a whole number, so the decimal point is at the right of 0. Moving the decimal point two places to the left, we have .40 or 0.40

Answer: 0.40 or 0.4 (0 at the right of the decimal numbers may be omitted)

Example 3

Convert 65.2% to decimal.


This is not a whole number. We can see the decimal point between 5 and 2. Moving the decimal two places to the left, we end up with .652 or 0.652.

Answer: 0.652

Example 4

Convert 2.5% to decimal.


There is only one number to the left of the decimal place. But we need to move two places, so, we add 0. That becomes .025 or 0.025

Answer: 0.025

Example 5

What is 124% to decimal.


This is a whole number, so the decimal point is at the right of 4. Moving the decimal point to the left we have 1.24.

Answer: 1.24

Example 6

What is 0.8% in decimal?


Moving 2 decimal places to the left, we have .008. So the answer is 0.008.

Answer: 0.008

Example 7

A t-shirt worth P600 has a 15% discount. How much is the discount?


The equivalent of 15% to decimal is 0.15

Now, 600 × 0.15 = 90

Therefore, the discount is Php90.

How to Convert Decimal Numbers to Percent

Conversions of decimals, fractions, and percent is a very important basic skill in mathematics and many problems in the Civil Exams require this skill. Being able to convert from one form to another will help you speed up in calculations.   For example, instead of multiplying a number by 25%, you just have to get its 1/4 or simply divide it by 4.

Percent usually appears in discount and interest problems while fractions and decimals appear in various types of problems.

How to Convert Decimals to Percent

To convert decimal percent, you just have to multiply the decimal by 100.

Example 1

What is 0.25 in percent?


0.25 × 100 = 25

So, the answer is 25%.

Example 2

What is 0.08 in percent?

0.08 × 100 = 8

Therefore, the answer is 8%.

Of course, there are cases that the given is more than one such as the next example

Example 3

What is 1.8 in percent?


1.8 × 100 = 180

Therefore, the answer is 180%.

Example 4

What is 0.009 in percent?


0.009× 100 = 0.9%

Notice that some percent can also have decimal point such as shown in Example 4. In dealing with many decimals, if we multiply them with 100, we just move two decimal places to the right.

In the next post, we are going to discuss the other way around. That is, how to convert, percent to decimals.

Grammar Rules: Present Progressive Tenses

Written by Leny Ortega

After discussing the simple and perfect tenses, we continue with progressive tense. The tenses under this category denote that the action is on-going depending on time the action is done or completed. Below is an in-depth explanation of the correct usage of these progressive tenses.

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE shows continuing action, something is going on at the time of speaking.
FORM: (for singular subject) am / is + verb –ing
(For plural subject) are +verb – ing

Example: The president is accepting Mr. Purisima’s very timely resignation.
They are preparing for school right now.

Sometimes the present progressive tense is used to express future action.
Example: Our delegates are arriving in 25 minutes.

EXERCISE Write the correct form of the present progressive tense of the verb in the parentheses.

1.) Charina (speak) as a representative of the faculty members.

2.) The Filipinos (express) their frustration over the death of the 44 SAF members.

3.) There are rumors that some militant groups (want) the president’s resignation.

4.) Claire (expect) her fiancé to come home in two weeks time.

5.) The teacher (call) Nancy to recite the Desiderata.


1.) Charina is speaking as a representative of the faculty members.
The subject, Charina, here is singular that is why we use is + the –ing form of the verb speak. Imagine that Charina is actually in front of you right now speaking.

2.( The Filipinos are expressing their frustration over the death of the 44 SAF members.

The subject is plural (Filipinos) so, we use the “are” plus the –ing form of the verb express.

3.) There are rumors that some militant groups are wanting the president’s resignation.
Our subject here is the militant groups which is plural that is why the verb “are” is the correct form plus the–ing of the verb want. Obviously, the two foregoing sentences are controversial issues at the present time. Everywhere you go people have different opinions on the so called fallen 44.

4.) Claire is expecting her fiancé to come home in two weeks time.

5.) The teacher is calling Nancy to recite the Desiderata.
Sentence 4 and 5 has singular subjects, Claire and teacher respectively. The use of verb “is” is appropriate plus the –ing form of the given verbs. Both sentences give us the idea of the two individuals expecting something to happen and calling someone to do something all at the present time of speaking. Just like a video footage telecast real-time.

Grammar Rules: Future Perfect Tense

Written by Leny Ortega

In the previous posts, we have discussed Present Perfect Tense and Past Perfect Tense. In this post, we are going to discuss Future Perfect Tense.

Future perfect expresses the idea that something will happen before another action in the future. It also shows that something will happen before a specific time in the future. Just like the past perfect tense there must be two actions. In this case, these actions should be completed or done in the future. The action that will happen first, though in the future, will follow the will + have + past participle of the verb. Then, the other future action will use the simple present tense.

Form:    will + have +past participle of the verb

The common time expressions are: before, by tomorrow/ 7 o’clock / next month, etc., until or till.


1. By next year, I will have moved to my new house.
2. By the time the husband gets home, the wife will have cooked dinner.
3. He will have perfected his English by the time he moves to the US.

Exercise: Use the future perfect form of the verb in the following sentences.

1. They (graduate) from college by April 2025.
2. Melissa (turn) 40 by the end of the year.
3. The students (submit) the report until the teacher (arrive).
4. I (complete) the needed reports by the time the president (need) them.
5. A better model of cellular phones (release) in the market by next month.


1. They will have graduated from college by April 2025. This means that come 2025 the students are definitely done with their studies.

2. Melissa will have turned 40 by the end of the year. This statement tells us that before the end of December Melissa will have celebrated her 40th birthday. Therefore, the birthday comes first before the year ends.

3. The students will have submitted the report until the teacher arrives. The idea here is that when the teacher comes to school the students have already submitted the report. Therefore, she doesn’t have to wait for them because she has it probably on her table.

4. I will have completed the reports by the time the president needs it. The two future actions here are the completion of the reports and the time when the report is needed. In this sentence the completion happened first even before the president asks the secretary probably, to hand him the copy of the reports.

5. A better model of cellular phones will have released in the market by next month. In this number the two future events are the release of the new cellular phones and next month. Therefore the market is expected to have the new unit of cell phones before we turn to another month.

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